Moanalua Garden and the Hitachi Tree

ハワイの歴史と文化 -この木何の木とモアナルアガーデン-

In this entry, I will introduce Moanalua Gardens and the famous monkey pod tree also known as the Hitachi Tree.

The Monkey Pod (Samanea Saman) is part of the pea family and although originally from Central and South America it now grows in many parts of the subtropics. Its branches have a long reach and its leaver are similar to that of a fern where they open at sunrise and close at sunset. It flowers twice a year in May and November.   

Moanalua Gardens, now a privately owned garden open to the public, contains many large monkey pod trees. This land used to belong to the Kamehameha royal family, who united the Hawaiian Islands under one rule. In 1884, this land was conveyed to Samuel Damon, a close friend to the royal family, who turned it into a park. Carrying out the royal family’s beliefs for desegregation and coexistence, Damon opened this park to the general public and wanted it to be enjoyed by everyone. Within the park, he incorporated aspects from cultures from around the world, including a Japanese tea house. Even to this day, along with Kamehameha V cottage, there remains a Japanese style pond and an oriental style building known as the Chinese theater.  As for the plants within the park, along with native Hawaiian species, plants from all over the world that were gathered and planted. The monkey pods were bought in from overseas during this time.

Among the monkey pods within the park, there is one in particular that brings thousands of visitors to this spot and is nicknamed the Hitachi Tree. The Hitachi Tree is estimated to be 130 years old, 75 feet (25 m) tall, 120 feet (40 m) wide, with a trunk around 21 feet (7 m) in girth.

In September 2009, the Hitachi Tree was recognized by the State of Hawaii in Exceptional Trees, which is a list of trees in the state of Hawaii that are considered to be exceptional.  The Exceptional Tree Act passed in 1975 by the Hawaii State Legislature was in response to fears that the island’s precious trees would be lost to development. The Act acknowledges unique trees and the value that they hold aesthetically and ecologically. To be considered for exceptional tree status, the tree or grove of trees must meet one or more of the following criteria:

  • Historic or Cultural Value
  • Age
  • Rarity
  • Location
  • Size
  • Esthetic Quality
  • Endemic Status

In 2012 there were 163 trees listed as exceptional trees and the Hitachi Tree was listed as having the most value of all of them! This is because there is something extra special about the Hitachi Tree.  This tree has a high advertisement value.

hitachi-a

Hitachi, a large global electronic company, has used this tree as a corporate symbol since 1973.  An agreement between the Damon Estate and Hitachi gave Hitachi exclusive worldwide rights to use the tree’s image for promotional purposes in exchange for annual payments of $20,000. After the last remaining Damon grandchild died in 2004, Hitachi negotiated with the new owner, Kaimana Ventures, and agreed to pay $400,000 a year for 10 years to use the tree in its advertising. 

The Hitachi Tree seems to be cared for well so I doubt there’s any worry of it being cut down for development purposes.

References:

Exceptional Tree Act: http://www1.honolulu.gov/parks/exceptionaltrees.htm

Hitachi Tree: http://www.hitachinoki.net/profile/index.html

Hawaii Business: http://www.hawaiibusiness.com/Hawaii-Business/March-2011/Hitachi-Tree-4-million/

Honolulu Advertiser: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Jan/26/bz/FP701260356.html

James Dole’s Pineapple Plantation

Previously, I wrote a short entry about the pineapple industry started in Hawaii. Today, I’d like to take you on a journey of James Dole, the man who made the pineapple industry the number one industry in Hawaii.

In 1899, James Dole moved to Hawaii after studying business and agriculture at Harvard University. It was a time when agriculture was in full swing in the U.S. and Dole felt there was a future in agriculture in Hawaii. He dreamed of expanding Hawaii’s agriculture and exporting produce to the continental U.S.

Soon after moving to Oahu, he purchased 61 acres of farm land in Wahiawa and started a pineapple plantation which proved to be a huge success. There were others besides Dole who were growing pineapples but he felt particularly strong about the potential for Hawaii’s pineapples and felt it could be the island’s largest produce. He went on to successfully create a pineapple industry and became known as the Pineapple King throughout the U.S.

Dole was aware of the high demand of pineapples in the continental U.S., as well as, new technology that would allow for rapid transportation across the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, improvements in the canning process allowed food to keep for longer periods, which helped Dole’s business. Cans which were airtight and made sturdy for transportation allowed pineapple to be transported over long distances yet remain fresh. It was perfect for the pineapple industry.

Dole’s first cannery was build in Wahiawa in 1901. After a few years, the cannery was relocated near the harbor in Honolulu where there was a concentration of labor and quick transportation to the shipyard. The water tower which was shaped like a pineapple soon became a landmark as it could be seen from anywhere in Honolulu. At one point, this cannery was the largest cannery in the world.  The cannery was in operation until 1991.

When Dole first started his plantation business, pineapples were considered to be a unique and exotic fruit in western countries. In Europe and New York, pineapples appeared in art, such as paintings and sculptures, but only a few knew how to handle and prepare a pineapple for consumption. Dole, along with other businessmen, started researching how to make the pineapple sweeter. They created unique recipes such as Pineapple Pie and Pineapple Salad and advertised across the U.S. which drew attention. They also educated food distributors on how to identify differences in quality and how to prepare the fruit. These efforts proved to be effective as the demand for pineapple increased and expanded to the global market.

One of America’s staple recipes, The Pineapple Upside Down Cake, became famous from Dole’s sponsored pineapple recipe contest in 1925, which had 60,000 participants. Dole’s canned pineapples became a part of every household and took up a part of every family’s kitchen cabinet space. The demand for pineapple continued to grow and in 1922 Dole expanded his plantation by purchasing 20,000 acres of land on the island of Lanai. He relocated the world’s largest cannery and took ownership of the agriculture farm. Plantation Village became home to over 1,000 laborers and their family.  Over the course of 70 years, Lanai became known as Pineapple Island as over 75% of the world’s pineapples were produced there. In the 1930s, Lanai became known worldwide as the capital of pineapple.

According to James Dole, the Hawaiian Pineapple Company produced over 200,000 tons of pineapple annually.  The pineapple industry became the second largest industry in the state. In the 1940s, there were eight pineapple companies in operation. Dole’s company was the largest company in the state with a cannery on Lanai and Oahu, 3,000 full time employees and 4,000 seasonal employees.

James Dole passed away in 1958 at the age of 80. He was known world wide as the founder of the Dole Company and he had created a brand name that was recognized  by everyone

Hawaii Facts: Location and Weather

自然 -地理・気候-

In 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state in the United States of America. Larger than Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island, it is 47th in size among the 50 states. With a population of about of 1,400,000 (in 2012) Hawaii is ranked 40th in population. Located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, 2,390 miles from California; 3,850 miles from Japan; 4,900 miles from China; and 5,280 miles from the Philippines; Hawaii is the most isolated population center on the face of the earth.

With 137 recognized islands, the state of Hawaii extends some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers)  and has 750 miles (1,210 km) of coastline, making it the fourth-longest ocean coastline in America(after Alaska, Florida, and California). It is made up of  an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea sea mounts. The most known are the major eight islands which are (from East to West): Hawaii (the Big Island), Maui, Kahoolawe, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, Niihau. Niihau, which is privately owned, and Kahoolawe, which is uninhabited and scattered with unexploded ordinances left by the U.S. Navy, are not open to tourism and there are no major commercial flights to these islands. 

With an average temperature at sea level being 85°F (29°C), the temperature in Hawaii is very consistent throughout the year. Average humidity is around 70% and with constant trade winds bringing a cool breeze through the islands, it is a very comfortable place to live.  These trade winds come from the northeast and collide with the mountains, creating clouds which produce rain. Most of the rain falls on the northeastern (windward) side of the islands, creating the rich forests and splendid waterfalls.  Due to this weather pattern, beautiful rainbows are often seen cast over the mountains and valleys, lending the nickname Rainbow State.

Endangered Species

自然環境 -絶滅危惧種-

There are 64 animals and 338 plants that live in Hawaii and have been identified as endangered species[1]. The animals listed below are referenced from an environmental NGO called Center for Biological Diversity.[2] Although this is just a small fraction of the numerous animals which are endangered, I’d like to use these well known species as examples. 

Nene (Hawaiian Goose)

At one point, there were confirmed to be 20,000 Nene on the Hawaiian islands. However, due to hunting, destruction of habitats and falling prey to natural predators, by 1918 the number drastically declined to 30.  Since then, thanks to breeding programs, controlling of natural enemies, and protection of natural habitats, the Nene population increased to 400 by 1980 and by 2003 the population was at 1, 275.

 Honu (Green sea turtle)

The Honu is listed as a threatened species under federal and state law. Honu live in the tropical and semi-tropical climate and can be found predominantly in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. However, due to over hunting and destruction of natural habitat, the number of Honu has declined. In Hawaii, over 90%  of the Honu have built their nest in the French Frigate Shoals (the largest atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands). Since protection of Honu began in 1978, the nesting female population within the atoll increased from 75 in 1973 to 470 in 2003. Although disease has been of concern, habitat loss due to development and expanding tourism remains to be the largest threat. 

Koholā(Humpback whale)

There were estimated to be 200,000 Kohalā in the world until commercial hunting in the early 1900s decimated the species. The International Whaling Commission banned hunting in 1966 but by then, the population had declined to 1,000. Since protection began, the Kohalā population has increased and in 1992 there were estimated to be 6,000 to 8,000.

 

These animals are often seen among the Hawaiian Islands and are an integral part of the nature. Surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, there is a limited amount of land in the Hawaiian Islands and we must use this land harmoniously with animals and plants. In order to lead a healthy life abundant with nature, it is necessary for us to consider how plants and animals can live safely as well.

 

Resources:

[2]Center for Biological Diversity:

Hawaii’s Pineapple History

ハワイの歴史と文化 -パインアップル-

Pineapple

Sweet yet a little sour, pineapples are one of my favorite fruits. I often ate canned pineapples but since moving to Hawaii, I’ve been able to eat freshly picked pineapples often, making them a part of my daily life in Hawaii. Today, I’d like to talk about the famous pineapples here on Oahu.

Pineapple got its name from its exterior skin that is hard and similar in appearance to that of a pine cone and its apple-like sweet smell.   It originated in South America and was introduced to Europe as an exotic fruit by Columbus. In New England sailors took them home with them as having fresh pineapple in one’s pouch became a symbol of welcoming customers.

In America, serving pineapple at a party was of utmost extravagance and a sign of hospitality. It was President George Washington’s favorite fruit but since it was so rare, he made a pinery (a greenhouse for growing pineapples) at his house in Mount Vernon.  

Although it is debated as to who and when pineapples were first introduced to Hawaii, in the beginning of the 1800s, Spanish advisor to King Kamehameha, Don Francisco de Paula y Marin, was successful at cultivating pineapple on the islands.

Gardener John Kidwell  was the first entrepreneur to start a pineapple industry in Hawaii. In the 1800s he imported and experimented with a variety of pineapple shoots to see which one was the best for commercial cultivation. He created a canning system and exported his canned pineapple to San Francisco.  Later, James Dole immigrated to Hawaii and expanded the pineapple industry. He made pineapple cultivation the largest industry in Hawaii at the time, and the fruit which was once thought to be exotic and unusual became something that every family could easily eat.